Shape borrowing can improve the design of objects like borrowing the shape of a bird with a long neck for a bendable lamp. The shapes are normally taken from the objects we see around us and they are fused together with the original item that is modified.
SCAMPER, which stands for substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to other use, eliminate, rearrange/reverse, helps in the modification of an item to make it better, for example, you can combine the uses of 2 items so that you would not need to use 2 different items to complete the same task. You can also eliminate a part of an item which is excessive or unnecessary to make it better. Modifying how the item looks like or its design is another way of refining it.